Mongolia is known to the world as the Land of Blue Sky thanks to its average 250 sunny days a year often with clear skies. Most of the country is hot in the summer with average temperature at +20C (+65F) and cold in the winter with average temperature at -20 C (-13F).
Spring comes after a long winter, days become longer, and nights shorter. It is the time for snow to melt and for animals to come out from hibernation. All animals and livestock breed while the soil thaws in the warm spring weather. Spring is the prosperous season of the year when everybody is full of optimism; grass turns green, anemones grow up and nature is covered with its green dress. Beginning in March spring usually lasts about 60 days although it can be as long as 70 days or as short as 45 days in some areas of the country. Spring in Mongolia is also characterized by the driest and the windiest climate.
Mid to late May is one of the good times to visit Mongolia, especially Ulaanbaatar and surrounding areas as it is not heavily packed up with tourists yet.
It’s the most popular time to travel not only for tourists but also for Mongolians themselves! Everybody feels calm and relaxed. Moderate climate allows you to travel to anywhere in Mongolia.
Generally, precipitation is higher in summer than any time of the year. Rivers and streams are at their fullest in summer. It is the time when pasture, grass and crops grow and livestock gain weight and fat. It is the most pleasant time with abundant dairy products and there are many feasts and holidays of happy people. In Mongolia, summer lasts about 100 days from the end of May until September with July being the warmest month of summer.
Autumn in Mongolia is the season of transition from summer to winter. There is less rainfall in autumn than in summer. Grass and trees change their colours into gold. Although, days become shorter and nights longer, early and mid September periods are also good time to visit if you prefer to stay out of tourist crowd.
As autumn goes on gradually it gets cooler and vegetables and grains are harvested at this time. Migratory birds pack up to head to the south and livestock is fat and woolly in preparation for the winter. Autumn is an important season in Mongolia in order to prepare for winter; harvesting the crops, vegetables and fodder; getting ready their cattle barns and sheds; preparing firewood and warming up their homes and so on. Autumn lasts about 60 days from the beginning of September until the early November. In late September, there are some warm and sunny days that last about ten days.
Winter time is fun and good for some sport activities such as skiing and dog sledges because Mongolia is almost the only country in North East Asia with relatively developed infrastructure to carry out such activities. More and more people are interested in wonderful winter. All rivers, lakes, streams and ponds freeze creating sparkling miracle of crystals everywhere. It snows throughout the country, but not heavily. After making all the necessary preparations for a long winter, herdsmen stay at their winter camps. Winter starts early in November and lasts about 110 days until March. Sometimes it snows in September and November, but the heavy snow usually occurs at the beginning of October.
The geography of Mongolia is varied, with the Gobi desert to the south and with mountainous regions to the north and west. Much of Mongolia consists of steppes. The highest point in Mongolia is the Khüiten Peak in the Tavan bogd massif in the far west at 4,374 m (14,350 ft).
The name "Gobi" is a Mongol term for a desert steppe, which usually refers to a category of arid rangeland. Mongols distinguish Gobi from desert proper, although the distinction is not always apparent to outsiders unfamiliar with the Mongolian landscape. Mongolian Gobi is a home to many endemic plant and animal species such as black tailed gazelle, wild ass, wild camel and Mazaalai – the gobi bear. Also Gobi is rich with ancient fossils because it was once part of a large inland sea basin.
In contrast to Gobi desert, northern part of Mongolia enjoys more precipitation (300 to 400 mm annually) and cooler temperature. It is mostly mountain forest steppe enough to support rich biological diversity.
Western, southwestern and some central part and of Mongolia is characterized by high mountains and extended mountain ranges.
Climate in the high mountain zone is extreme with high winds and short growing season. Situated above tree line, these regions are characterized by tundra, alpine-sedge meadows and highland swamps.